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LIST OF AVAILABLE CONSOLES

LIST OF AVAILABLE CONSOLES

I checked on some of the UE4 console commands, especially «fly» and «ghost» (the Q3A equivalent of «noclip») and tested a few other commands bit the console *never* yields and feedback. AFAICT the console is not connected to the game and does nothing. Hmm. It is connected to the game, but it seems that the type of packaging of the game determines which commands are disabled by the engine.

«stat unit» for example still works, while others dont work anymore because this is a «shipping» build and not «development».

I just tried it out, did not knew this either.

I ask about the fly mode to be able to better take screenshots of puzzle solutions, to be able to fly anywhere would greatly help here.

The other thing I would looked for was to turn off the crosshair. I will think about it for future games, since «fly» does not work i have to create a fly mode myself. (same goes for noclip)

The crosshair(s) will also get multiple alternatives in future games, one of them being disabled — my plan also is to allow you to change the color of the crosshair to whatever you want. (allthough the next game is not a ReThink, they do share menus etc.)

Do these commands actually exit? And/or actually work with the present console implementation in the game? Some work, some not — seems to be determined within internal engine settings.

Regardless of that, whatever you type into the console directly gets executed as console command.

==========
The thing is, most of my playtime happens in «Dev builds», not the shipping build that ends up on steam, which lead to me not knowing that some commands were disabled in the steam build. (i dont need them in the final build anymore, so i necer tried.)

I mean, there is a reason i made the console visible, and it was not «to not allow people to use it» — allthough using the console is at your own risk, since you may, depending on what you do with it break the game.

Sneak Peek at stuff i am currently working on, if someone is interested (since i teased it in the reply anyway):

A new menu for all future games, which can have different colors etc. (unfinished and work in progress!)
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iBXlLkAzibMK1RJqFWFOAs-Utu1dSA-_/view?usp=sharing

A game i am currently trying to create, which will be set in the same «world» as the rethink games but feature different gameplay and simpler visuals — while also being cheaper.

My goal is to at least double the performance of the new games, but currently it looks like it will be triple of that. (Of course this will come at a cost (visually), but i have to try around with this in the near future.)

I also created hundreds of new pieces (and i am still creating new ones) for new games. (allthough they are not visible in the screenshots currently, they do exist.)

If there is interest i could start to create weekly «logs» or so for the new games, since it seems that some people are interested in the stuff that changed in the last game — ?

EDIT: also sorry for not answering immediately, have not gotten a notice from steam and was working hard on new stuff.

LIST OF AVAILABLE CONSOLES

I checked on some of the UE4 console commands, especially «fly» and «ghost» (the Q3A equivalent of «noclip») and tested a few other commands bit the console *never* yields and feedback. AFAICT the console is not connected to the game and does nothing. Hmm. It is connected to the game, but it seems that the type of packaging of the game determines which commands are disabled by the engine.

«stat unit» for example still works, while others dont work anymore because this is a «shipping» build and not «development».

I just tried it out, did not knew this either.

I ask about the fly mode to be able to better take screenshots of puzzle solutions, to be able to fly anywhere would greatly help here.

The other thing I would looked for was to turn off the crosshair. I will think about it for future games, since «fly» does not work i have to create a fly mode myself. (same goes for noclip)

The crosshair(s) will also get multiple alternatives in future games, one of them being disabled — my plan also is to allow you to change the color of the crosshair to whatever you want. (allthough the next game is not a ReThink, they do share menus etc.)

Do these commands actually exit? And/or actually work with the present console implementation in the game? Some work, some not — seems to be determined within internal engine settings.

Regardless of that, whatever you type into the console directly gets executed as console command.

==========
The thing is, most of my playtime happens in «Dev builds», not the shipping build that ends up on steam, which lead to me not knowing that some commands were disabled in the steam build. (i dont need them in the final build anymore, so i necer tried.)

I mean, there is a reason i made the console visible, and it was not «to not allow people to use it» — allthough using the console is at your own risk, since you may, depending on what you do with it break the game.

Sneak Peek at stuff i am currently working on, if someone is interested (since i teased it in the reply anyway):

A new menu for all future games, which can have different colors etc. (unfinished and work in progress!)
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iBXlLkAzibMK1RJqFWFOAs-Utu1dSA-_/view?usp=sharing

A game i am currently trying to create, which will be set in the same «world» as the rethink games but feature different gameplay and simpler visuals — while also being cheaper.

My goal is to at least double the performance of the new games, but currently it looks like it will be triple of that. (Of course this will come at a cost (visually), but i have to try around with this in the near future.)

I also created hundreds of new pieces (and i am still creating new ones) for new games. (allthough they are not visible in the screenshots currently, they do exist.)

If there is interest i could start to create weekly «logs» or so for the new games, since it seems that some people are interested in the stuff that changed in the last game — ?

EDIT: also sorry for not answering immediately, have not gotten a notice from steam and was working hard on new stuff.

LIST OF AVAILABLE CONSOLES

Localization settings are based on three components: the language code, country code, and encoding. Locale names are constructed from these parts as follows:

The LanguageCode and CountryCode are used to determine the country and the specific language variation. Table 22.1, “Common Language and Country Codes” provides some examples of LanguageCode _ CountryCode :

A complete listing of available locales can be found by typing:

To determine the current locale setting:

Language specific character sets, such as ISO8859-1, ISO8859-15, KOI8-R, and CP437, are described in multibyte (3) . The active list of character sets can be found at the IANA Registry.

FreeBSD uses Xorg-compatible locale encodings.

The rest of this section describes the various methods for configuring the locale on a FreeBSD system. The next section will discuss the considerations for finding and compiling applications with i18n support.

22.2.1. Setting Locale for Login Shell

Locale settings are configured either in a user’s

/.login_conf or in the startup file of the user’s shell:

Two environment variables should be set:

LANG , which sets the locale

In addition to the user’s shell configuration, these variables should also be set for specific application configuration and Xorg configuration.

Two methods are available for making the needed variable assignments: the login class method, which is the recommended method, and the startup file method. The next two sections demonstrate how to use both methods.

22.2.1.1. Login Classes Method

This minimal example sets both variables for Latin-1 encoding in the .login_conf of an individual user’s home directory:

Here is an example of a user’s

/.login_conf that sets the variables for Traditional Chinese in BIG-5 encoding. More variables are needed because some applications do not correctly respect locale variables for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean:

Alternately, the superuser can configure all users of the system for localization. The following variables in /etc/login.conf are used to set the locale and MIME character set:

So, the previous Latin-1 example would look like this:

See login.conf (5) for more details about these variables. Note that it already contains pre-defined russian class.

Whenever /etc/login.conf is edited, remember to execute the following command to update the capability database:

22.2.1.1.1. Utilities Which Change Login Classes

In addition to manually editing /etc/login.conf , several utilities are available for setting the locale for newly created users.

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When using vipw to add new users, specify the language to set the locale:

When using adduser to add new users, the default language can be pre-configured for all new users or specified for an individual user.

If all new users use the same language, set defaultclass= language in /etc/adduser.conf .

To override this setting when creating a user, either input the required locale at this prompt:

or specify the locale to set when invoking adduser :

If pw is used to add new users, specify the locale as follows:

To change the login class of an existing user, chpass can be used. Invoke it as superuser and provide the username to edit as the argument.

22.2.1.2. Shell Startup File Method

This second method is not recommended as each shell that is used requires manual configuration, where each shell has a different configuration file and differing syntax. As an example, to set the German language for the sh shell, these lines could be added to

/.profile to set the shell for that user only. These lines could also be added to /etc/profile or /usr/share/skel/dot.profile to set that shell for all users:

However, the name of the configuration file and the syntax used differs for the csh shell. These are the equivalent settings for

/.csh.login , /etc/csh.login , or /usr/share/skel/dot.login :

To complicate matters, the syntax needed to configure Xorg in

/.xinitrc also depends upon the shell. The first example is for the sh shell and the second is for the csh shell:

22.2.2. Console Setup

Several localized fonts are available for the console. To see a listing of available fonts, type ls /usr/share/syscons/fonts . To configure the console font, specify the font_name , without the .fnt suffix, in /etc/rc.conf :

The keymap and screenmap can be set by adding the following to /etc/rc.conf :

To see the list of available screenmaps, type ls /usr/share/syscons/scrnmaps . Do not include the .scm suffix when specifying screenmap_name . A screenmap with a corresponding mapped font is usually needed as a workaround for expanding bit 8 to bit 9 on a VGA adapter’s font character matrix so that letters are moved out of the pseudographics area if the screen font uses a bit 8 column.

To see the list of available keymaps, type ls /usr/share/syscons/keymaps . When specifying the keymap_name , do not include the .kbd suffix. To test keymaps without rebooting, use kbdmap (1) .

The keychange entry is usually needed to program function keys to match the selected terminal type because function key sequences cannot be defined in the keymap.

Next, set the correct console terminal type in /etc/ttys for all virtual terminal entries. Table 22.2, “Defined Terminal Types for Character Sets” summarizes the available terminal types.:

console(1) — Linux man page

console — console server client program

Synopsis

Description

Console is used to manipulate console terminals remotely or to poll running conserver(8) daemons for status information.

In the first form above, console asks the user’s password before granting interactive access to a console (on a non-trusted system), since such a session may provide single-user access. If the server’s autocompletion feature is enabled, only as much of the console name as is required to identify it uniquely to the server is required.

For non-interactive options, console outputs only the requested information and exits.

Console knows only of a primary conserver host (see the -M option below), to which it initially connects. In a multi-server environment, the primary server may refer the client to a different server handling the requested console, or it will provide a list of all servers if required (as when console is invoked with the -r option). Console then opens connections to the appropriate server(s). It is not necessary for the user of console to know which server manages which consoles, as long as console knows a valid primary server and all available consoles are listed in the primary server’s configuration file.

Options

Options may be given as separate arguments (e.g., -v -w) or clustered (e.g., -vw). Options and their arguments may be separated by optional white space. Option arguments containing spaces or other characters special to the shell must be quoted. -7

Strip the high bit off of all data received, whether from user input or from the server, before any processing occurs. Disallows escape sequence characters with the high bit set.

Access a console with a two-way (read-write) connection (this is the default). The connection is dropped to spy mode if someone else is attached read-write.

Broadcast a message to all users connected to each server.

Same as -b but just send a message to users on the primary server.

Load an SSL certificate and key from the PEM encoded file cred.

Use the per-user configuration file config.

Disconnect the users specified by user@console. You may specify the target as user (disconnect the user, regardless of what console they are attached to), @console (disconnect all users attached to console), or user@console (disconnect the user attached to console).

Enable debugging output.

Set the initial two-character escape sequence to those represented by esc. Any of the forms output by cat(1)’s -v option are accepted. The default value is »^Ec».

If encryption has been built into the code (—with-openssl), encrypted client connections are, by default, a requirement. This option disables any attempt at creating an encrypted connection. If you’d like to use encrypted connections when your server supports it, but fallback to non-encrypted otherwise, the -U option is what you want.

Same as -a except it will force any existing connection into spy mode.

Display a brief help message.

Display status information in a machine-parseable format (see below for the details).

Same as -i but just acts on the primary server.

Set the login name used for authentication to user. By default, console uses $USER if its uid matches the user’s real uid, or $LOGNAME if its uid matches the user’s real uid, or else the name associated with the user’s real uid.

The console client program polls master as the primary server, rather than the default set at compile time (typically »console»). The default master may be changed at compile time using the —with-master option. If —with-uds is used to enable Unix domain sockets, however, this option points console to the directory which holds those sockets. The default master directory (»/tmp/conserver») may be changed at compile time using the —with-uds option.

Do not read the system-wide configuration file.

Set the port to connect to. This may be either a port number or a service name. The default port may be changed at compile time using the —with-port option. If the —with-uds option was used, this option is ignored.

Display the pid of the master daemon process on each server.

The console client connects to each server to request that the server daemon quit (shut down). The root password of the host(s) running conserver is required unless the local host is listed as »trusted» in the conserver.cf file; in that case, just press .

Same as -q but just acts on the primary server.

Display daemon versions. The console client connects to each server to request its version information.

Same as -r but just acts on the primary server.

Request a read-only (spy mode) connection. In this mode all the escape sequences (below) work, or report errors, but all other keyboard input is discarded.

Send a text message to user@console. You may specify the target as user (send to user, regardless of what console they are attached to), @console (send to all users attached to console), or user@console (send to user attached to console).

Show a list of all consoles with status (‘up’, ‘down’, or ‘init’) and attached users (user@host if attached read-write, ‘ ‘ if only users in spy mode, or ‘ ‘).

If encryption has been built into the code (—with-openssl), encrypted client connections are, by default, a requirement. This option allows the client to attempt an encrypted connection but fall back to a non-encrypted connection if the server doesn’t support encryption. If the encryption handshake is failing, disabling encryption on the client with the -E option is probably what you want.

Be more verbose when building the connection(s). Use this option in combination with any of ‘show’ options (below) for added benefit.

Output the version and settings of the console client program and then exit.

Show a list of all who are currently connected to consoles, including the hostnames where the console connections originate and the idle times. This is useful to see if anybody is actively using the console system if it becomes necessary to shut down conserver.

Same as -w but just acts on the primary server.

Show a list of consoles and devices.

Sends a command (cmd) to each server and displays the result. The valid commands are: bringup

Try to connect all consoles marked as down (this is equivalent to sending the server a SIGUSR1)

Same as bringup

Displays the help message

Returns the pid of the server (this is equivalent to -P)

Instructs the server to shut down (this is equivalent to -q or sending the server a SIGTERM)

Instructs the server to reload the configuration file, then perform the actions of reopen (this is equivalent to sending the server a SIGHUP)

Same as reconfig

Instructs the server to reopen all logfiles, then perform the actions of bringup (this is equivalent to sending the server a SIGUSR2)

Returns the version of the server (this is equivalent to -V)

-Zcmd Same as -z but just sends cmd to the primary server. The -A, -F, or -S options have the same effect as their lower-case variants. In addition, they each request the last 20 lines of the console output after making the connection (as if »^Ecr» were typed).

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The -i, -u, -w, and -x options can be given a console name, which will limit their output to that console.

The -i option outputs status information regarding each console in 15 colon-separated fields. name

The name of the console. hostname,pid,socket The hostname, pid, and socket number of the child process managing the console. type

The type of console. Values will be a ‘/’ for a local device, ‘|’ for a command, ‘!’ for a remote port, ‘%’ for a Unix domain socket, and ‘#’ for a noop console. console-details The details regarding the console. The values here (all comma-separated) depend on the type of the console. Local devices will have values of the device file, baud rate/parity, and file descriptor for the device. Commands will have values of the command, the command’s pid, the pseudo-tty, and file descriptor for the pseudo-tty. Remote ports will have values of the remote hostname, remote port number, »raw» or »telnet» protocol, and file descriptor for the socket connection. Unix domain sockets will have the path to the socket and the file descriptor for the socket connection. Noop consoles will have nothing. users-list The details of each user connected to the console. The details for each user are an ‘@’ separated list of ‘w’, ‘r’, or ‘s’ (for read-write, read-only, or suspended), username, hostname the user is on, the user’s idle time, and (for ‘r’ and ‘s’ users only) »rw» or »ro» (if the user wants read-write mode or not). Each user bundle is separated by commas. state

The state of the console. Values with either be »up», »down», or »init».

This value will either be »rw» or »ro». It will only be »ro» if the console is a local device (‘/’ type) and the permissions are such that the server can open the file for read, but not write. logfile-details The details regarding the logging for the console. The comma-separated values will be the logfile, »log» or »nolog» (if logging is on or not — toggled via »^EcL»), »act» or »noact» (if activity logging is enabled or not — the ‘a’ timestamp option), the timestamp interval, and the file descriptor of the logfile. break

The default break sequence used for the console.

If the console is currently down and the automatic reconnection code is at work, it will have the value of »autoup», otherwise it will be »noautoup». aliases The console aliases are presented in a comma-separated list. options The active options for the console are presented in a comma-separated list. initcmd The initcmd configuration option for the console. idletimeout The idletimeout configuration option for the console. idlestring The idlestring configuration option for the console.

Configuration

Console reads configuration information from the system-wide configuration file (console.cf), then the per-user configuration file (.consolerc), and then applies command-line arguments. Each configuration location can override the previous. The same happens when parsing an individual file — the later entries always override the earlier entries. Because of that, you should put »global» defaults first and more specific defaults second.

The configuration file is read using the same parser as conserver.cf(5), and you should check that manpage for parser details. Console recognizes the following configuration blocks. config hostname|ipaddr Define a configuration block for the client host named hostname or using the address ipaddr. If the value of »*» is used, the configuration block will be applied to all client hosts. escape esc

Set the escape sequence (see the -e command-line flag). master master

Set the default master to master (see the -M command-line flag). playback num|«»

Override the playback length for the p escape command to num lines (if the server supports it). Using the special value of »0» will cause the client to use the number of lines of the current terminal (if that can be determined). If the null string (»»»») is used, the playback length will not be overridden. port port

Set the default port to port (see the -p command-line flag). replay num|«»

Override the replay length for the r escape command to num lines (if the server supports it). Using the special value of »0» will cause the client to use the number of lines of the current terminal (if that can be determined). If the null string (»»»») is used, the replay length will not be overridden. sslcredentials filename

Set the SSL credentials file location (see the -c command-line flag). sslenabled yes|true|on|no|false|off

Set whether or not encryption is attempted when talking to servers (see the -E command-line flag). sslrequired yes|true|on|no|false|off

Set whether or not encryption is required when talking to servers (see the -U command-line flag). striphigh yes|true|on|no|false|off

Set whether or not to strip the high bit off all data received (see the -7 command-line flag). username user

Set the username passed to the server to user (see the -l command-line flag). terminal type Define a configuration block when using a terminal of type type. If the value of »*» is used, the configuration block will be applied to all terminal types. attach string|«»

Set a string to print when successfully attached to a console. Character substitions will be performed based on the attachsubst value and occur before interpretation of the special characters below. If the null string (»«»») is used, no string will be printed. string is a simple character string with the exception of » and ‘^’:

LIST OF AVAILABLE CONSOLES

You’re no stranger to Dragon Age Inquisition, aren’t you? It’s a fantasy role-playing game, which was released on November 18 th , 2014 by BioWare. And it’s known as the latest title of the Dragon Age series.

Since you’re here, we will show a list of necessary Dragon Age Inquisition console commands. From there, you can get a BIG advantage to win this game soon.

What are you waiting for? Follow us and discover now!

How to use console commands or codes?

Before finding the available console commands, you need to know to avail them while playing Dragon Age Inquisition. Since the old batch of direct console cheats doesn’t work effectively, you should follow us carefully.

  • First of all, you have to create a shortcut to the dai.exe file on the desktop. Just enter program files (x86)Dragon Age Inquisitionbin_ship folder.
  • Then right click on the file to choose Properties.
  • Search for the target field and add the code “enabledeveloperconsole.” Make sure it should resemble C:Program Files (x86)Dragon Age 2bin_shipDragonAgeInquitiion.exe – enabledeveloperconsole.
  • Next, use the default tilde key (

) to turn on the code.

  • Finally, start typing the console commands and tap Enter to start them.
  • Dragon Age Inquisition console commands to consider

    As outlined above, you need to know the Dragon Age Inquisition console commands help to complete this game quickly as well as giving you fun moments while playing. Take a look at the commands below now!

    A BIG note to remember is that you should backup all the game files before changing with game data. Avoid using too many commands at once because it might lead to crashing the game and you might end up losing your saved progress.

    Additionally, we want to focus on other console commands of the PCs only. For instance, if you are going to unlock a higher framerate for the PC version, type GameTime.MaxVariableFPSxx. Xx here is the value you need the framerate to run.

    And below is what you need, game lovers.

    • MaxVariableFPS
    • DrawScreenInfo
    • ResolutionScale
    • VSyncFlashTestEnable
    • Dx11Enable
    • e RenderDevice.Dx11Dot1Enable
    • Dx11Dot1RuntimeEnable
    • ForceRenderAheadLimit 2
    • StereoConvergenceScale
    • StereoSeparationScale
    • StereoSoliderZoomConvergenceScale
    • TrippleBufferingEnable 1
    • VSyncEnable
    • Enable
    • DrawGraph 1
    • DrawFPS 1
    • DrawFPSMethod
    • GraphMethod
    • LegendDisplayFormat
    • BlurMethod
    • DofMethod
    • DynamicAOEnable
    • DynamicAOMethod
    • Format
    • Render
    • BordersEnable
    • Height
    • PosX
    • PosY
    • Width
    • MotionBlurEnable
    • MotionBlurForceOn
    • MotionBlurFixedShutterTime
    • MotionBlurFrameAverageCount
    • MotionBlurHax
    • MotionBlurMaxSampleCount
    • MotionBlurNoiseScale
    • MotionBlurQuality
    • MotionBlurScale
    • LightTileCsPathEnable
    • SpotLightShadownmapEnable
    • SpotLightShadownmapResolution
    • TransparencyShadowmapsEnable

    Dragon Age Inquisition Cheat Engine


    Along with the Dragon Age Inquisition console commands, finding cheats for more gold, better stats, unlimited potions, bigger bag size or more influence is necessary as well. And the Dragon Age Inquisition Cheat Engine is the place you can exploit.

    As you know, Cheat Engine is a free open source tool intended for changing single player games operating on the Mac or Windows platforms. The alterations can either turn the game easier by showing added perks, equipment, skill, and money or make it tougher by decreasing your skill or even enhancing game expectations.

    How to use the Cheat Engine?

    Since the procedure for starting it is similar to any game, you can follow our steps below.

    • First of all, run the game you want to play.
    • Then, tap Alt + Tab to turn on Windows switch and select the Cheat Engine window.
    • Hit the First Icon and “select a process to open.” Remember to find gamename.exe (for instance, dragonageinquistion.exe for Dragon Age Inquisition), choose it and click open.
    • Next, press the next icon to turn on the cheat table explorer or tap Ctrl + O.
    • Later, load the cheat table you downloaded and move back to the game to carry out the cheats you activated.
    • Note that every cheat table has its hotkeys. So, you should go through the description in such a way that you know what to choose or what to do to summon a change.

    Dragon Age Inquisition Toggle HUD and God Mode cheat table

    This cheat table needs you to avail the 64-bit version of Cheat Engine 6.4 to activate. Besides, you should prepare the VEH debugger when performing it.

    Here are the features that will be started by the cheat table, including:

    • To edit character stats (level, health, ability points, etc.)
    • To edit items in the inventory (item editor)
    • To edit items in the shop’s inventory (item editor)
    • To edit party attributes (power, perks, influence, etc.)
    • Free camera (x, y, z)
    • Free crafting (no ingredients used)
    • God mode
    • Infinite items supply in the shop
    • Infinite Potions
    • Infinite zoom
    • Toggle HUD
    • Toggle SkyHold Outfit

    Infinite money while playing on PC, Xbox One, 360, PS3 & PS4

    One of the most expected cheats while playing this cool game is to receive an endless amount of cash in your inventory.

    The trick lies in twisting the system clock on your PC or consoles. However, it’s warned making the most of this cheat might ruin the entire flow of the game. Also, it’s possible this exploit can be patched out in due course, though it might be tough to move away from the game’s systems.

    So, how to own all the money you want?

    • At first, please choose Gather Coin in Ferelden
    • Then send Josephine on the mission. Keep in mind to observe the timer at this time.
    • Later, merely hit Alt + Tab on the PC and move the system clock forward by an hour.
    • Next, turn back to the game and you will have automatically done the mission for a stack of cash.
    • Repeat this process as many times as you possibly can.

    In case you’re playing Dragon Age Inquisition on Xbox or PlayStation versions, you need to:

    • Close the application firstly.
    • Then enter the date setting on the consoles.
    • Move the system clock forward by an hour like above so that you will have finished the mission as loading the game.
    • Repeat as many times as possible, of course.

    Final thoughts

    With a list of Dragon Age Inquisition console commands as well as basic information of the Cheat Engine above, do you think that you can use them to play this game better?

    Of course, YES, right?

    Even, you can experience more fun moments and pleasure when using them while playing. If you are a newbie, make sure you give this game a try. In case you’re a seasoned player, please take advantage of these codes to finish with the best result.

    And don’t forget to follow us on this site so that you can update latest news and information about Dragon Age Inquisition as well as other popular RPG games. Be happy to support you!

    Regions, Availability Zones, and Local Zones

    Amazon EC2 is hosted in multiple locations world-wide. These locations are composed of Regions, Availability Zones, and Local Zones. Each Region is a separate geographic area. Each Region has multiple, isolated locations known as Availability Zones. Local Zones provide you the ability to place resources, such as compute and storage, in multiple locations closer to your end users. Resources aren’t replicated across Regions unless you specifically choose to do so.

    Amazon operates state-of-the-art, highly available data centers. Although rare, failures can occur that affect the availability of instances that are in the same location. If you host all of your instances in a single location that is affected by a failure, none of your instances would be available.

    Contents

    Concepts

    Each Region is completely independent. Each Availability Zone is isolated, but the Availability Zones in a Region are connected through low-latency links. A Local Zone is an AWS infrastructure deployment that places select services closer to your end users. A Local Zone is an extension of a Region that is in a different location from your Region. It provides a high-bandwidth backbone to the AWS infrastructure and is ideal for latency-sensitive applications, for example machine learning. The following diagram illustrates the relationship between Regions, Availability Zones, and Local Zones.

    Amazon EC2 resources are one of the following: global, or tied to a Region, an Availability Zone, or a Local Zone. For more information, see Resource locations.

    Contents

    Regions

    Each Amazon EC2 Region is designed to be isolated from the other Amazon EC2 Regions. This achieves the greatest possible fault tolerance and stability.

    When you view your resources, you see only the resources that are tied to the Region that you specified. This is because Regions are isolated from each other, and we don’t automatically replicate resources across Regions.

    When you launch an instance, you must select an AMI that’s in the same Region. If the AMI is in another Region, you can copy the AMI to the Region you’re using. For more information, see Copying an AMI.

    Note that there is a charge for data transfer between Regions. For more information, see Amazon EC2 Pricing — Data Transfer .

    Availability Zones

    When you launch an instance, you can select an Availability Zone or let us choose one for you. If you distribute your instances across multiple Availability Zones and one instance fails, you can design your application so that an instance in another Availability Zone can handle requests.

    You can also use Elastic IP addresses to mask the failure of an instance in one Availability Zone by rapidly remapping the address to an instance in another Availability Zone. For more information, see Elastic IP addresses.

    An Availability Zone is represented by a Region code followed by a letter identifier; for example, us-east-1a . To ensure that resources are distributed across the Availability Zones for a Region, we independently map Availability Zones to names for each AWS account. For example, the Availability Zone us-east-1a for your AWS account might not be the same location as us-east-1a for another AWS account.

    To coordinate Availability Zones across accounts, you must use the AZ ID, which is a unique and consistent identifier for an Availability Zone. For example, use1-az1 is an AZ ID for the us-east-1 Region and it has the same location in every AWS account.

    Viewing AZ IDs enables you to determine the location of resources in one account relative to the resources in another account. For example, if you share a subnet in the Availability Zone with the AZ ID use-az2 with another account, this subnet is available to that account in the Availability Zone whose AZ ID is also use-az2 . The AZ ID for each VPC and subnet is displayed in the Amazon VPC console. For more information, see Working with Shared VPCs in the Amazon VPC User Guide.

    As Availability Zones grow over time, our ability to expand them can become constrained. If this happens, we might restrict you from launching an instance in a constrained Availability Zone unless you already have an instance in that Availability Zone. Eventually, we might also remove the constrained Availability Zone from the list of Availability Zones for new accounts. Therefore, your account might have a different number of available Availability Zones in a Region than another account.

    You can list the Availability Zones that are available to your account. For more information, see Describing your Regions, Availability Zones, and Local Zones.

    Local Zones

    A Local Zone is an extension of an AWS Region in geographic proximity to your users. When you launch an instance, you can select a subnet in a Local Zone. Local Zones have their own connections to the internet and support AWS Direct Connect, so resources created in a Local Zone can serve local users with very low-latency communications. For more information, see AWS Local Zones .

    A Local Zone is represented by a Region code followed by an identifier that indicates the location, for example, us-west-2-lax-1a .

    To use a Local Zone, you must first enable it. For more information, see Enabling Local Zones. Next, create a subnet in the Local Zone. Finally, launch any of the following resources in the Local Zone subnet, so that your applications are closer to your end users:

    Amazon EC2 instances

    Amazon EBS volumes

    Amazon FSx file servers

    Application Load Balancer

    Local Zones are not available in every Region. For information about the Regions that support Local Zones, see Available Regions.

    You can list the Local Zones that are available to your account. For more information, see Describing your Regions, Availability Zones, and Local Zones.

    Network border groups

    A network border group is a unique set of Availability Zones or Local Zones from where AWS advertises IP addresses. You can allocate the following resources from a network border group:

    Elastic IPv4 addresses that Amazon provides

    IPv6 Amazon-provided VPC addresses

    A network border group limits the addresses to the group. IP addresses cannot move between network border groups.

    Available Regions

    Your account determines the Regions that are available to you. For example:

    An AWS account provides multiple Regions so that you can launch Amazon EC2 instances in locations that meet your requirements. For example, you might want to launch instances in Europe to be closer to your European customers or to meet legal requirements.

    An AWS GovCloud (US-West) account provides access to the AWS GovCloud (US-West) Region only. For more information, see AWS GovCloud (US-West) Region .

    An Amazon AWS (China) account provides access to the Beijing and Ningxia Regions only. For more information, see AWS in China .

    The following table lists the Regions provided by an AWS account. You can’t describe or access additional Regions from an AWS account, such as AWS GovCloud (US-West) or the China Regions. To use a Region introduced after March 20, 2019, you must enable the Region. For more information, see Managing AWS Regions in the AWS General Reference.

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